Globalization refers to the historical process by which all the world's people increasingly come to live in a single social unit. It implicates religion and religions in several ways. From religious or theological perspectives, globalization calls forth religious response and interpretation. Yet religion and religions have also played important roles in bringing about and characterizing globalization.
You can help by adding to it. December Main article: Multiracial Hybridity is a cross between two separate races, plants or cultures. Hybridity is not a new cultural or historical phenomenon. It has been a feature of all civilizations since time immemorial, from the Sumerians through the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans to the present.
Both ancient and modern civilizations have, through trade and conquests, borrowed foreign ideas, philosophies, and sciences, thus producing hybrid cultures and societies. The term hybridity itself is not a modern coinage.
It was common among the Greeks and Romans. The word hybridity was in use in English since the early 17th century and gained popular currency in the 19th century. Charles Darwin used this term in in reference to his experiments in cross-fertilization in plants.
The concept of hybridity was fraught with negative connotations from its incipience. The Greeks and Romans borrowed extensively from other civilizations, the Egyptians and Persians in particular, and creating ipso facto hybridized cultures, but regarded unfavourably biological hybridity.
AristotlePlato and Pericles were all opposed to racial mixing between Greeks and "barbarians" and viewed biological hybridity as a source of racial degeneration and social disorder. Similarly, within the Roman Empire, which is considered as one of the most multi-ethnic empires, cultural difference was usually integrated into the predominant culture, whereas biological hybridity was condemned.
This is manifest in the Codex Theodosianus AD which prohibited marriages between Christians and non-Christians, the Jews in particular, and inflicted death penalty on those who did not obey this law. The fear of miscegenation that followed responds to the concern that the offspring of racial interbreeding would result in the dilution of the European race.
Hybrids were seen as an aberration, worse than the inferior races, a weak and diseased mutation. Hybridity as a concern for racial purity responds clearly to the zeitgeist of colonialism where, despite the backdrop of the humanitarian age of enlightenmentsocial hierarchy was beyond contention as was the position of Europeans at its summit.
The social transformations that followed the ending of colonial mandates, rising immigration, and economic liberalization profoundly altered the use and understanding of the term hybridity.
It is the second stage in the history of hybridity, characterized by literature and theory that study the effects of mixture hybridity upon identity and culture. Hybridity demonstrates how cultures come to be represented by processes of iteration and translation through which their meanings are vicariously addressed to—through—an Other.
This contrasts any "essentialist claims for the inherent authenticity or purity of cultures which, when inscribed in the naturalistic sign of symbolic consciousness frequently become political arguments for the hierarchy and ascendary of powerful cultures. The colonial subject is located in a place of hybridity, its identity formed in a space of iteration and translation by the colonizer.
Hybridity opens up a space, figuratively speaking, where the construction of a political object that is new, neither the colonizer nor the Other, properly defies our political expectations.
However, like Bhabha's concept of mimicry, hybridity is a doubling, dissembling image of being in at least two places at once. This turn in the effect of hybridity makes the presence of colonist authority no longer immediately visible.
Bhabha includes interpretations of hybridity in postcolonial discourse. One is that he sees hybridity as a strategic reversal of the process domination through disavowal. Hybridity reevaluates the assumption of colonial identity through the repetition of discriminatory identity effects.
In this way, hybridity can unsettle the narcissist demands of colonial power, but reforms its identifications in strategies of subversion that turn the gaze of the discriminated back upon the colonist.
The hybrid retains the actual semblance of the authoritative symbol but reforms its presence by denying it as the signifier of disfigurement—after the intervention of difference.
In turn, mimicry is the effect of hybridity. First, the metonymy of presence supports the authoritarian voyeurism, but then as discrimination turns into the assertion of the hybrid, the sign of authority becomes a mask, a mockery.
Yet hybridity no longer is solely associated with migrant populations and with border towns, it also applies contextually to the flow of cultures and their interactions. That critique of cultural imperialist hybridity meant that the rhetoric of hybridity progressed to challenging essentialismand is applied to sociological theories of identitymulticulturalismand racism.View purchasing options.
Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now! Another promoter of hybridity as globalization is Jan Nederveen Pieterse, who asserts hybridity as the rhizome of culture. He argues that globalization as hybridization opposes views which see the process as homogenizing, modernizing, and westernizing, and that . Pierterse () refers globalization as a Hybridization process that results in global mélange overtime. He argues that globalization is a multidimensional process that unfolds in numerous realms of existence concurrently, like all important social processes.
takes issue with both these interpretations as narrow assessments of globalization and instead argues for viewing globalization as a process of hybridization which gives rise to a global mélange.
Pieterse, J , 'Globalization as hybridization', in Featherstone, M, Lash, S & Robertson, R. Globalization as hybridization is a powerful political, economical, social, and most of all, cultural force and phenomenon that is constantlyand radicallytransforming societies worldwide and the way they interact with each other.
Therefore, hybridization is a term that underlines the diversity associated with the unique mixtures of the global and the local as opposed to the tendency toward uniformity often associated with globalization.
A cultural hybrid involves the combination of two or more, elements from different cultures and parts of the world. It discusses the view of globalization as a process of hybridization, thus leading to Melange. The article used in refrencing is called "Globalization As Hybridization" by J.N Pietrese.
Find more details by doing a search on the net To. Globalization thesis – Hybridization theory Theoretically, Culture and globalization are two diverse concepts involved in this study. Globalization involves a process of local and regional adaptations in many areas of human life under emerging global situation (Mondal, ).
This theory exposes a very positive view of cultural globalization that is not linked with homogenization but with global heterogenization and the emerging of new cultural realities.
A fundamental concept that expresses clearly this process is the one underlined by Robertson and called Glocalization.